"Connecting Communities for COVID19 News" 4th Aug 2020

Isolation Tips
Boris Johnson could tell over-50s to stay at home to avoid lockdown
Millions of people over the age of 50 could be asked to stay at home under Boris Johnson’s plan to avoid the ‘nuclear’ option of a second nationwide lockdown. The targeted approach to deal with a potential second wave of coronavirus infections reportedly emerged in a ‘war game’ session with Chancellor Rishi Sunak this week. Under the proposal, people aged between 50 and 70 could be given ‘personalised risk ratings’ – based on factors such as age and health conditions – and asked to shield themselves in the event of an outbreak, the Times reported. During lockdown, more than two million were deemed to be most at risk and asked to shield themselves from the deadly virus at home.
Coronavirus lockdown caused sharp increase of insomnia in UK
The number of Britons suffering sleep loss caused by worrying rose from one in six to one in four as a direct result of the huge disruption to people’s social and working lives after the restrictions began on 23 March. Social isolation, loss of employment, financial problems, illness, fear of getting infected with coronavirus and the pressures of juggling work and home-schooling all contributed to the trend. Prof Jane Falkingham, from the Economic and Social Research Council-funded Centre for Population Change at Southampton University, which undertook the research, said: “Sleep loss affected more people during the first four weeks of the Covid-19 related lockdown than it did before. We observed a large increase in the number of Britons, both men and women, suffering anxiety-induced sleep problems.
Hygiene Helpers
Testing, Tracking Can Keep Students’ Virus Risk Low, Studies Say
Only 1.2% of people caught the virus after they were in contact with 27 children or teachers who were infectious, according to a study of schools and nurseries in New South Wales, Australia, where track, trace and isolation measures were used. Further analysis of seven sites found the disease was less likely to spread from child to child than from staff to staff, researchers said Monday in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health journal. Concerns over resurgent infections have grown as countries struggle to re-open schools and childcare centers full-time. Federal data show that children account for more of total infections than previously thought in some U.S. states, spurring those such as California to reverse course and continue with online classes. While children account for a very small proportion of Covid deaths, researchers still aren’t sure of their overall role in the pandemic.
Coronavirus: Test and Trace needs 'scaling up' for schools to reopen safely | ITV News
The NHS Test and Trace programme needs to be scaled up in order to reopen schools safely, researchers have said. A new modelling study has suggested reopening schools across the UK in September must be combined with a high-coverage test-trace-isolate strategy to avoid a second wave of coronavirus later this year. Researchers warned in a worst-case scenario, a second wave could be 2.3 times higher than the first, according to the study published in The Lancet Child And Adolescent Health. The study comes as Australian research found there were “low” levels of Covid-19 transmission in schools and nurseries.
Spain to roll out COVID-19 app twice as effective as human tracers in pilot
Spain aims to roll out a COVID-19 contact-tracing app across the country in September after saying on Monday that a pilot showed it could detect almost twice as many potential infections as human trackers during a simulated outbreak on a tiny island. In the absence of a vaccine or cure, states are deploying Bluetooth wireless technology to log contacts and alert people when someone they have been near tests positive. Spain used a new system developed by Google (GOOGL.O) and Apple (AAPL.O) which holds data on individual devices to ensure privacy, to build an app it tested on La Gomera, an island next to the tourist hotspot of Tenerife in the Canary archipelago, in July.
Coronavirus Northern Ireland: Three weeks without Covid-19 death
Northern Ireland has gone three weeks without a death from Covid-19. The latest figures from the Department of Health show it has been 21 days since the last person died from coronavirus, with the death toll remaining at 556. Over the weekend another 40 positive cases of Covid-19 were confirmed bringing the total to 5,988 since the pandemic began. The new cases were detected after 4,632 tests were carried out on 3,206 people. There are currently three Covid-19 patients in Northern Ireland's hospitals with two in intensive care units. In Northern Ireland's care homes there are currently five active outbreaks of the virus with 171 being closed after the virus was found to no longer be present.
Coronavirus: Sewage testing for Covid-19 begins in England
Sewage testing is being conducted across England in a bid to develop wastewater-based Covid-19 surveillance. Scientists discovered early in the pandemic that infected people "shed" the virus in their faeces. Further research concluded that wastewater sampling could provide a signal of a coronavirus outbreak up to a week earlier than medical testing. The Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs says this has begun at 44 wastewater treatment sites. A Defra spokesperson said the government was working with scientists, water companies and the devolved governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. They would "monitor for fragments of coronavirus genetic material".
Coronavirus: Lockdown 'reverse gear' warning after pub cluster
Scotland's national clinical director has said there has to be a "reverse gear" over easing lockdown after 27 Covid-19 cases were linked to a pub. Prof Jason Leitch was speaking after the cluster emerged on Sunday linked to the Hawthorn Bar in Aberdeen. NHS Grampian said contact tracing efforts were continuing to find all those associated with the outbreak and 123 people had now been contacted. The pub said cases were linked to customers who visited on 26 July.
Philippines to reimpose stricter coronavirus lockdown in capital as cases spike
The Philippines will reimpose a stricter coronavirus lockdown in and around the capital for two weeks from Tuesday, authorities said on Sunday, as the country struggles to contain infections that have jumped to more than 100,000 cases. President Rodrigo Duterte has approved placing Metro Manila and nearby provinces such as Laguna, Cavite, Rizal and Bulacan under so-called “Modified Enhanced Community Quarantine” (MECQ) until Aug. 18, his spokesman Harry Roque told reporters. Some businesses and public transport are expected to be closed in the capital, which is currently under the less restrictive General Community Quarantine classification.
Smartphones and COVID-19 transmission: What we know so far
As uncertainty around COVID-19 transmission continues, experts say it's unlikely you'll be infected by your smartphone -- but you should probably sanitize it anyway. Although there haven't been any documented cases of transmission through a smartphone, experts say that sanitizing your phone is just good hygiene, akin to washing your hands.
Community Activities
Coronavirus: WHO warns of 'no silver bullet' amid vaccine search
The head of the World Health Organization (WHO) has said that while there is hope for a vaccine against Covid-19, one might never be found. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus told a news briefing there was "no silver bullet at the moment - and there might never be". Mr Tedros implored people around the world to comply with measures such as social distancing, hand-washing and mask-wearing, saying: "Do it all." Globally, more than 18 million Covid-19 infections have been recorded. The death toll stands at 689,000, with both figures given by the US-based Johns Hopkins University.
An incoherent approach to controlling Covid-19
The recent approach to controlling Covid-19 transmission in England seems particularly boneheaded: the recent local “spikes” were entirely preventable by a proper system of testing, tracking and tracing, identifying contacts of individual cases and locking them down; this system is just not in place, and no macro-statistic of total tests undertaken will substitute for it. This is what “local measures” should mean, not targeting huge swathes of the urban population. Second, the measures recently adopted are incoherent to the point of absurdity – I can go out with friends for dinner, but not visit my mother? The danger here is lack of credibility, exacerbated by a complete inability to enforce such parochial restrictions.
Workers slow to return to offices after England relaxes rules
Workers were only slowly returning to offices around England on Monday after the government relaxed its guidance about working from home during the coronavirus pandemic. In the centre of London footfall was only 2 per cent higher on Monday compared with last week, according to data collected by the New West End Company, reflecting how the number of office workers and visitors remained subdued. Footfall was 68 per cent lower compared with this time last year. Boris Johnson last month announced a relaxation of the official guidance put in place at the start of the Covid-19 crisis that many people should work from home if possible, with the change taking effect on Monday.
We must not wait idly for an elusive Covid-19 vaccine
A package of behavioural and drug-based interventions will save lives and better prepare us for the next crisis. The two lessons to be drawn are that our aspirations in vaccine development are not always realised, and that we can make great progress nonetheless with new drugs and other interventions. Our faith in vaccines against Covid-19 is partly driven by the counter-narrative, which is equally true. Smallpox was eradicated by a vaccine and those against polio, measles and other viral diseases have greatly improved human health. Still, the challenges to developing and deploying a safe and effective Covid-19 vaccine in 2021 are substantial. We do not know whether natural infection confers robust immunity.
COVID-19: Pharma on the frontline
Pharma stepped up to support the NHS, the country and the World during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pf brings you some examples of pharma on the frontline of COVID-19. On the frontline – medical affairs to ICU doctor George Godfrey, AstraZeneca UK
Coronavirus: Eight ways life in the UK has changed
Restrictions on daily life in many parts of the UK - to try to curb the spread of coronavirus - have been eased in recent weeks. Employers in England can bring staff back to the workplace and people can use public transport for non-essential journeys (while wearing face coverings). Many pubs, shops and restaurants have reopened, while most of those who have been shielding are no longer advised to stay at home. There are places where the easing of lockdown measures has been halted - Leicester and Greater Manchester, for example. But, overall, how have people in the UK responded?
Less than half of people in England understand current lockdown rules
Levels in Scotland and Wales have also fallen but are higher than those in England, with reported levels of understanding at 75% and 61% respectively. Complete understanding has fallen even further, with only 14% of adults in England reporting understanding the rules completely as lockdown eased, compared to 18% in Wales and 27% in Scotland.
Working Remotely
Lloyds Considers Long-Term Remote Working
Lloyds Banking Group has become the latest large employer in the UK to review its use of office space as a result of the move towards homeworking due to the COVID-19 lockdown. Chief executive, António Horta-Osório, said: “We are indeed reviewing our property strategy”. The bank currently has over 75% of its staff working from home. A poll of its staff found that almost 90% felt that they were handling the change well, with a further two-thirds saying they wanted to continue to work from home in the future.
Covid-19 Hastens the Work-at-Home Revolution
Because of Covid-19, my patient now happily works from home. Her company may get rid of its expensive Manhattan office and allow all employees to work remotely. She says the cost savings have been immense—and she’s scratching her head about why her bosses couldn’t have had this epiphany sooner, when she and her children might have benefited.
Riverbed study finds 95% UAE and KSA business leaders are comfortable to shift to remote work
Nearly all (97%) of the business leaders surveyed in the UAE and Saudi Arabia reported that technology performance issues impact the experience of their remote workers. The most common issues – all resolvable – include: frequent disconnects from corporate networks (43%), slow file downloads (41%), apps not working properly (40%) and long response times when loading apps (39%). When asked about the impact these issues have on the remote work experience of employees, business leaders report: increased technical disruptions or difficulties (44%), weaker employee performance and lack of productivity (41%), lack of clarity on strategic priorities (37%) and reduced direct services to customers or clients (37%).
Coronavirus US: 260 staff 'excluded' from work in school district
Georgia's largest school district Gwinnett County Schools have reported 260 employees who have tested positive for COVID-19 or were exposed to a case These employees have been 'excluded' from work as a result, days before the school year start on August 12. The district, which employs more than 24,900 people, decided to open schools with remote learning but teachers must still report to their schools to teach However, teachers have reported that in-person trainings have taken place in rooms that aren't properly disinfected and people don't wear masks Gwinnett County has the second highest rate of COIVD-19 cases in the state with 17,781 confirmed infections
Virtual Classrooms
As COVID-19 rate rises, American Federation of Teachers Massachusetts calls for remote start to 2020-2021 sch
Another Massachusetts teachers union is calling for school districts to start remotely, citing the slow rise of COVID-19 rates, testing delays and lack of proper ventilation in school buildings as red flags. The American Federation of Teachers Massachusetts, a union of 23,000 educators, raised concerns about the increasing number of COVID-19 cases, which Massachusetts Health and Human Services Secretary Marylou Sudders called a “slow creep” during last week’s news conference. As of Sunday, the state’s positive test rate over seven days rose to 2.2%, in part due to increases over the weekend.
Coronavirus: How pandemic pods and zutors are changing home-schooling
When the number of coronavirus cases began to rise in the San Francisco area in early July, mother of one Lian Chikako Chang started a Facebook group to support local families and teachers who were suddenly facing the prospect of schools not opening in person as planned in mid-August. The "Pandemic Pods" group, which aims to help with childcare and schooling needs, grew to more than 30,000 members within three weeks, as areas across the US were hit by Covid-19 spikes and more schools decided to stay shut. "Families were left scrabbling for solutions," says Ms Chang. "Most parents have to work, and most jobs are not compatible with home-schooling".
San Antonio Alliance of Teachers and Support Personnel asks district leaders to keep campuses closed until it’s safe
San Antonio Alliance of Teachers and Support Personnel asking for virtual-only instruction for at least the first nine weeks of school
What are the chances of getting infected with COVID-19 at a school?
You may think of this incident as a coalmine canary this week. The very day, in fact only hours after Greenfield Central Junior High School in Indiana opened, it found its first COVID-19 case. An infected student unknowingly walked the halls and sat in classrooms before the school enacted its “Positive COVID-19 Test Protocol,” which isolated the student and started contact tracing among teachers, staff and classmates. The New York Times calculated the likelihood that an infected student could arrive at any given county school in the country. The static screenshots I am including below do not do justice to this brilliant work. These maps are interactive, so go to the Times’ page and look at counties in your area.
What Could School Be Like in the Fall? Summer School in Detroit Offers a Preview
When public schools here opened for summer instruction, protesters blocked school buses and challenged the opening in a lawsuit. In-person learning was too risky, they said, amid the pandemic. On July 21, a judge ordered the school district to test all in-person students for Covid-19. Only three students—less than 1% of those attending in-person classes—have tested positive, according to school authorities and the Detroit Health Department. Detroit’s foray into in-person summer school offers a glimpse of what students and parents may face when more schools reopen in the fall as the pandemic continues.
Reopening schools amid COVID-19: A mix of in-person attendance, remote learning and hybrid plans
Every state’s education department is releasing a roadmap to safely reopening schools. This roadmap is only a guidance and it is not mandated, or state required. Local school districts have the authority and flexibility to make decisions that best accommodate their communities. 24/7 Wall St. reviewed executive orders, directives, and guidelines issued by either governors or education and health departments to create a list of restrictions and safety recommendations for resuming in-person instruction in every state
Public Policies
Millions could be told to stay home in bid to avoid second UK lockdown
Boris Johnson has ordered officials to work-up a plan for avoiding a second national lockdown, according to reports, which could see millions told to stay at home again. The prime minister is considering asking the elderly to shield once again and is mulling lockdown-like conditions for London should there be a second wave of coronavirus infections, The Sunday Telegraph and The Sunday Times said. Under the proposals, a greater number of people would be asked to take part in the shielding programme, based on their age or particular risk factors that have been identified since March, reports the Telegraph. It could even see those aged between 50 and 70 given “personalised risk ratings”, said the Times, in a move that would add to the 2.2 million who were deemed most vulnerable and asked to shield themselves from society during the spring peak.
U.K. Reviewing Covid-Fighting Options Including London Lockdown
The U.K. is looking at all options for tackling flare-ups of the coronavirus and will use regional data to target its response, Local Government Secretary Robert Jenrick said, following newspaper reports that a London-wide lockdown is being considered if cases spike in the capital.
Egyptians Celebrate Eid Al-Adha With Coronavirus Restrictions
During this year’s Eid al-Adha celebrations in Egypt, worshippers watched and listened to last year’s prayers on TV and the radio. Public gatherings and in-person mosque services were banned. The government mandated that people who wished to slaughter livestock — the mainstay of the Islamic “sacrifice holiday” — should bring their animals to specific, regulated butchers. Some people followed the new rules, others did not.
New Zealand axes travel bubble plans with Australia
New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern says a trans-Tasman travel bubble with Australia is now a “long way off”, given Australia’s new position in the fight against COVID-19. After Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews declared a “state of disaster” including harsh new restrictions, Ms Ardern said the country was no longer in a position to be thinking about a corridor across the ditch. Speaking on The AM Show on Monday, the New Zealand Prime Minister said it will likely be “several months” before a trans-Tasman bubble will even be considered, let alone put into practice between both nations given the number of coronavirus cases in Victoria.
Spanish minister claims UK could lift Balearic and Canary Islands quarantine today
Spain's tourism minister has said that Brits returning from the Balearic and Canary islands may soon not have to self-isolate for 14 days after visiting the popular destinations
The government is playing a very dangerous game over its lockdown strategy
The UK’s planning vacuum has been obvious for months. Blaming the public for not sticking to the rules simply won’t wash
Millions could be told to stay home in bid to avoid second UK lockdown
Boris Johnson has ordered officials to work-up a plan for avoiding a second national lockdown, according to reports, which could see millions told to stay at home again. The prime minister is considering asking the elderly to shield once again and is mulling lockdown-like conditions for London should there be a second wave of coronavirus infections, The Sunday Telegraph and The Sunday Times said. Under the proposals, a greater number of people would be asked to take part in the shielding programme, based on their age or particular risk factors that have been identified since March, reports the Telegraph. It could even see those aged between 50 and 70 given “personalised risk ratings”, said the Times, in a move that would add to the 2.2 million who were deemed most vulnerable and asked to shield themselves from society during the spring peak.
Australia Orders Six-Week Closure of Melbourne Businesses Amid Outbreak
Australia is ordering non-essential businesses in Melbourne, its second-largest city, to close for six weeks starting Wednesday as authorities try to control an outbreak that accounts for nearly all of the country’s new coronavirus cases. Health officials reported Monday 429 new COVID-19 infections and 13 deaths in Victoria state, which includes Melbourne. In addition to closing most stores, other industries such as construction and meat production will have to limit their operations starting Friday. The Victoria government declared a COVID-19 disaster in Melbourne on Sunday, and with the new restrictions going into effect, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison said Monday that workers in Victoria who do not have paid sick leave and have to isolate themselves will be eligible to receive a payment of about $1,000.
Switzerland should tighten coronavirus restrictions again, government advisor says
Switzerland should tighten restrictions to curb the coronavirus again following a recent spike in cases, in order to prevent the need for much harsher lockdown measures in future, the new head of the country’s coronavirus taskforce said. Switzerland has seen the number of new cases of COVID-19 surge to more than 200 a day recently after an average of 35 per day in June. Martin Ackermann, who heads the body that provides scientific advice to the Swiss government, said the country was on the brink of a big increase in infections and had little room to manoeuvre. “We should intervene early to prevent exponential growth,” Ackermann told newspaper SonntagsZeitung. “Otherwise there’s a risk of drastic and expensive restrictions. This must be prevented under all circumstances.”
Spain locks down two more towns after new coronavirus outbreaks
Two towns just three miles apart in north-west Spain went back in lockdown on Sunday, following a new outbreak of coronavirus. At least 49 people have tested positive following an outbreak at a slaughterhouse. Now around 10,000 residents in Iscar and Pedrajas de San Esteban, in Valladolid, must remain in their homes unless they have to go outside for an 'unavoidable' reason. Travel will be allowed between the towns but residents are not allowed to leave otherwise. Citizens face tough fines after officials warned that some people had not been taking the rules on face masks and social distancing seriously enough. Extra police patrols are being drafted in, as well as a helicopter to ensure the new rules are followed
Top US official urges 'really hard' lockdown as coronavirus outbreak enters 'new phase'
The US economy could benefit if the nation were to "lock down really hard" for four to six weeks, a top Federal Reserve official has said, as a senior White House official warned America was entering a new phase in which the coronavirus was "extraordinarily widespread" in rural areas as well as cities. The US economy, which in the second quarter suffered its biggest blow since the Great Depression, would be able to mount a robust recovery, but only if the virus were brought under control, Neel Kashkari, president of the Minneapolis Federal Reserve Bank, told CBS' Face the Nation.
Coronavirus Australia: What does stage 3 lockdown for Syndey look like?
An epidemiologist has suggested Sydney may need to go into stage three lockdown in order to stay on top of the growing COVID-19 clusters. Professor Tony Blakely aired his “unpopular” opinion while speaking with Sunrise on Monday morning. “I’m going to be unpopular in saying this but I certainly think Sydney should be sitting a stage three lockdown because you don’t want to let the virus get ahead of you,” he told the program. “New South Wales is on the edge at the moment.” A stage three lockdown would see Sydney residents only allowed to leave their homes to shop for essentials, exercise, to go to work or school or for care or caregiving.
Maintaining Services
Spain's new wave of infections hits the young, middle-aged
Like most Spaniards, Emma Gaya thought the worst of the pandemic was behind her. Spain’s government had ended a three-month lockdown after an COVID-19 onslaught that claimed at least 28,400 lives in the European Union nation. To kickstart its stalled economy, Spaniards were encouraged to cautiously resume their lives under a “new normality” based on wearing face masks, washing hands and social distancing.
Anger as nightclub 6 miles from lockdown area reopens with £200 tickets and huge queues
Switch nightclub in Preston, Lancashire, has been allowed open its doors to punters who paid up to £200 for a ticket after the council gave it the green light - but photos show revellers packed together with no social distancing
Coronavirus: Dozens test positive for Covid-19 on Norwegian cruise ship
At least 41 passengers and crew on a Norwegian cruise ship have tested positive for Covid-19, officials say. Hundreds more passengers who travelled on the MS Roald Amundsen are in quarantine and awaiting test results, the company that owns the ship said. The ship, which belongs to the Norwegian firm Hurtigruten, docked in the port of Tromso in northern Norway on Friday. Hurtigruten has halted all leisure cruises because of the outbreak. "This is a serious situation for everyone involved. We have not been good enough and we have made mistakes," Chief Executive Daniel Skjeldamsaid in a statement on Monday. "A preliminary evaluation shows a breakdown in several of our internal procedures," he added. "The only responsible choice is to suspend all expedition sailings."
Schools in Germany reopen — but coronavirus is not gone
All of Germany is looking toward the eastern state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the coming days. In 2020, the sparsely populated region in northeastern Germany is the first to start the school year this time. Summer holidays are staggered in Germany, so not all 16 federal states go on vacation at the same time, clogging the nation's airports and famed autobahns. This year's return to school can best be described as a large-scale experiment.
Should remote consultations be the default after COVID-19?
Speaking at the Royal College of Physicians last week, health secretary Matt Hancock argued that ‘all consultations should be teleconsultations, unless there's 'a compelling clinical reason not to.’ Mr Hancock celebrated the success of virtual consulting during the pandemic, saying that patients no longer wanted to 'sit around in a waiting room’. He added that a swing towards teleconsulting had benefited GPs - giving them time to ‘concentrate on what really matters’. However, many GPs have expressed caution over Mr Hancock's gung ho recommendation of a virtual-first approach. Some would no doubt have even shuddered at his mention of ‘Zoom medicine’.
‘It feels more dangerous than ever’: Back in the office after four months at home
The Whites aren’t the only people apprehensive about returning. In an exclusive focus group conducted with YouGov and The Independent office workers expressed their hope that remote working would continue post-pandemic, with many saying they did not want to return to office work five days a week. Several big businesses, including Facebook and Twitter, have already said they will be using the pandemic as an opportunity to encourage permanent remote working and the closure of large office spaces.
Northern England lockdown: Why you can go to the pub, but not a friend's garden Inconsistencies have led to sharp criticism of the government. Since the restrictions were imposed in Greater Manchester and parts of Lancashire and Yorkshire on Friday: Wigan MP and shadow foreign secretary Lisa Nandy said “the way the government has announced this has been an absolute shambles and made it harder to follow advice” Greater Manchester mayor Andy Burnham criticised the government for not publishing the exact rules immediately after the announcement was made on Thursday night - Francis Crick Institute director Sir Paul Nurse suggested the government is not treating the public like adults
Healthcare Innovations
4 former FDA commissioners: Blood plasma might be the covid-19 treatment we need
Blood plasma — also known as convalescent plasma — has been used as a therapy for infectious diseases for a century, including against the flu in 1918 as well as SARS, Ebola, meningitis and measles. While it doesn’t work for all infections, the idea is to use one person’s successful defense system of antibodies to bolster the immune response of a newly infected person.
Covid test: 'An entire laboratory in this cartridge'
New 90-minute tests that can detect coronavirus and flu will be rolled out in care homes and laboratories from 10 August in the UK. Currently, three-quarters of test results are returned within 24 hours and a quarter can take up to two days. The government says almost half a million of the new rapid swab tests, called LamPORE, will be available in adult care settings and laboratories, with millions more due to be rolled out later in the year. Additionally, thousands of DNA test machines, which can analyse nose swabs, will be rolled out across NHS hospitals from September. The "on-the-spot" swab and DNA tests will help distinguish between Covid-19 and other seasonal illnesses, according to the government. Professor Chris Toumazou, CEO of DnaNudge, showed the BBC how the new test works.
COVID-19 has “devastating” effect on women and girls
WHO issued interim guidance for maintaining essential services during an outbreak, which included advice to prioritise services related to reproductive health and make efforts to avert maternal and child mortality and morbidity.
Dozens of COVID-19 vaccines are in development. Here are the ones to follow.
More than 150 coronavirus vaccines are in development across the world—and hopes are high to bring one to market in record time to ease the global crisis. Several efforts are underway to help make that possible, including the U.S. government’s Operation Warp Speed initiative, which has pledged $10 billion (£7 billion) and aims to develop and deliver 300 million doses of a safe, effective coronavirus vaccine by January 2021. The World Health Organisation is also coordinating global efforts to develop a vaccine, with an eye toward delivering two billion doses by the end of 2021.